Using accrual accounting and the preceding values, show the firm’s net profit for the past year.
Accrual income versus cash flow for a period Thomas Book Sales, Inc., supplies textbooks to college and university bookstores. The books are shipped with a proviso that they must be paid for within 30 days but can be returned for a full refund credit within 90 days. In 2014, Thomas shipped and billed book titles totaling
$760,000. Collections, net of return credits, during the year totaled $690,000. The company spent $300,000 acquiring the books that it shipped.
a. Using accrual accounting and the preceding values, show the firm’s net profit for the past year.
b. Using cash accounting and the preceding values, show the firm’s net cash flow for the past year.
c. Which of these statements is more useful to the financial manager? Why?
Interest versus dividend income During the year just ended, Shering Distributors, Inc., had pretax earnings from operations of $490,000. In addition, during the year it received $20,000 in income from interest on bonds it held in Zig Manufacturing and received $20,000 in income from dividends on its 5% common stock holding in Tank Industries, Inc. Shering is in the 40% tax bracket and is eligible for a 70% dividend exclusion on its Tank Industries stock.
a. Calculate the firm’s tax on its operating earnings only.
b. Find the tax and the after-tax amount attributable to the interest income from Zig Manufacturing bonds.
c. Find the tax and the after-tax amount attributable to the dividend income from the Tank Industries, Inc., common stock.
d. Compare, contrast, and discuss the after-tax amounts resulting from the interest income and dividend income calculated in parts b and c.
e. What is the firm’s total tax liability for the year?
Capital gains taxes Perkins Manufacturing is considering the sale of two nondepreciable assets, X and Y. Asset X was purchased for $2,000 and will be sold today for $2,250. Asset Y was purchased for $30,000 and will be sold today for $35,000. The firm is subject to a 40% tax rate on capital gains.
a. Calculate the amount of capital gain, if any, realized on each of the assets.
b. Calculate the tax on the sale of each asset.
Sara Lehn, chief financial officer of Merit Enterprise Corp., was reviewing her presentation one last time before her upcoming meeting with the board of directors. Merit’s business had been brisk for the last 2 years, and the company’s CEO was pushing for a dramatic expansion of Merit’s production capacity. Executing the CEO’s plans would require $4 billion in capital in addition to $2 billion in excess cash that the firm had built up. Sara’s immediate task was to brief the board on options for raising the needed $4 billion. Unlike most companies its size, Merit had maintained its status as a private company, financing its growth by reinvesting profits and, when necessary, borrowing from banks. Whether Merit could follow that same strategy to raise the $4 billion necessary to expand at the pace envisioned by the firm’s CEO was uncertain, although it seemed unlikely to Sara. She had identified the following two options for the board to consider.
Option 1: Merit could approach JPMorgan Chase, a bank that had served Merit well for many years with seasonal credit lines as well as medium-term loans. Lehn believed that JPMorgan was unlikely to make a $4 billion loan to Merit on its own, but it could probably gather a group of banks together to make a loan of this magnitude. However, the banks would undoubtedly demand that Merit limit further borrowing and provide JPMorgan with periodic financial disclosures so that it could monitor Merit’s financial condition as Merit expanded its operations.
Option 2: Merit could convert to public ownership, issuing stock to the public in the primary market. With Merit’s excellent financial performance in recent years, Sara thought that its stock could command a high price in the market and that many investors would want to participate in any stock offering that Merit conducted. Becoming a public company would also allow Merit, for the first time, to offer employees compensation in the form of stock or stock options, thereby creating stronger incentives for employees to help the firm succeed. On the other hand, Sara knew that public companies faced extensive disclosure requirements and other regulations that Merit had never had to confront as a private firm. Furthermore, with stock trading in the secondary market, who knew what kind of individuals or institutions might wind up holding a large chunk of Merit stock?
a. Discuss the pros and cons of option 1, and prioritize your thoughts. What are the most positive aspects of this option, and what are the biggest drawbacks?
b. Do the same for option 2.
c. Which option do you think that Sara should recommend to the board, and why?
Follow these instructions for completing and submitting your assignment:
Do all work in Excel. Do not submit Word files or *.pdf files.
Submit a single spreadsheet file for this assignment. Do not submit multiple files.
Place each problem on a separate spreadsheet tab.
Label all inputs and outputs and highlight your final answer.
Follow the directions in “Guidelines for Developing Spreadsheets.”
Guidelines for Developing Spreadsheets
It is important to develop spreadsheets that are clear, well-organized, and easy to read. Here are some tips that you will need to assist with your assignments in class. I recommend them for all your work, both at GCU and later in your career.
Your spreadsheet should be organized into three basic parts. Clearly label each part.
A title, labeling what your spreadsheet does. The title for your spreadsheets in this course can be the problem number that you are assigned. Place this in the upper left corner, in cell A1.
Inputs, which are given or assumed.
Results (Outputs) which the spreadsheet calculates.
Provide specific labels for all inputs and outputs. Label both the variable names and the notation for the variables. Where a formula is involved, it is a good idea (but not necessary) to enter the formula to the right of the cell containing the results. I display these formulas in italics, so that they are not confused with the variable labels.
Highlight the cell containing the final answer, using EXCEL’s yellow highlighter, which can be found on the top menu bar.
If your spreadsheet uses a long formula, you might find it advisable to break the formula into component parts. This serves to minimize the typos that can occur when entering long formulas, as well as makes locating errors in the results easier to find. Nested parentheses are a particular problem in long formulas, and breaking up the calculations into component parts minimizes the need for nested parentheses also. In the example below, the calculations are broken into two steps; (1) the percentage changes in price and quantity demanded, and (2) the final elasticity calculation using these intermediate results.
Don’t forget to place each homework problem on a separate spreadsheet tab. Label these tabs with the problem number for easy identification.
A sample spreadsheet reflecting these points is below.
Calculating Price Elasticity of Demand
Original Price (P1) $10.00
New Price (P2) $12.00
Original Quantity Sold (Q1) 950
New Quantity Sold (Q2) 900
% change in price (decimal form) 0.2000 =(p2-p1)/p1
% change in quantity demanded (decimal form) -0.05263 =(q2-q1)/q1
price elasticity of demand -0.26316
Do not submit:
Multiple files for a single assignment
Filenames that start with anything but your last name. Save your files as Smith module 1 hmwk.xlsx
Filenames that do not have the module number on them