How do scientists determine the topography (shape) of the ocean floor?

1. How do scientists determine the topography (shape) of the ocean floor?
2. What is the water depth in meters if the average speed of sound in water is 1500 meters per second? Assume the echo sound took 4 seconds to strike bottom and return to the recorder. Be sure to show your work as to how you calculated this.
3. The Ocean Floor Profile that is constructed from many echo sounding data points is known as an Echo Sound (or Seismic) Reflection Profile and shows a detailed view of the ocean floor. What are the three main zones shown in the North Atlantic echo sound profile?
4. One type of continental margin is known as a Passive Margin. Describe the characteristics and features of a passive continental margin.
5. What are Turbidity Currents?
6. How might Submarine Canyons form?
7. Be able to identify and describe the characteristics of each feature in the Passive Margin Perspective shown in (Slide #29). You may have a figure like this on your Exam. (no answer is necessary for this question…but on an exam it will be required).
8. Describe the topographic (shape) characteristics of an Abyssal Plain.
9. What is the primary sediment type that makes up the floor of the Abyssal Plain?
10. List 2-3 features of an Active Continental Margin?
11. Describe the feature of the Mid-Atlantic Ocean Ridge System.
12. What are black smoker vents and where would you find them?
13. How did you do on the ocean floor practice identification diagram (Slide #39)?
14. (Slide #40) shows a detailed echo sound reflection profile of the Atlantic Ocean. Be able to identify the appropriate features associated with this profile. How did you do?
15. What causes waves to form?
16. Where does the sand that forms beaches come from?
17. What do long shore currents do to the beach sands?
18. Describe how wave action can erode and shape a coastal shoreline.
19. What is wave abrasion and how does it affect the coastal region.
20. What is a wave-cut platform and how do they form. (note slide #39 is a picture of Otter Beach Resort about 10 miles north of Newport, Oregon)
21. Under “Coastal Basics” How do Beaches form?
22. How do seasonal changes (Winter vs. Summer) affect beaches?
23. Under the “Types of Coast” you will find the following types.
a) Collision Coasts which are Active Margin Coasts like the West Coast of North America. Describe its features.
b) Trailing-edge Coasts which are Passive Margin Coasts like the East Coast of North America. Describe its features.
c) See the picture of Palos Verdes, California…this is where I grew up…pretty cool place. Now it is Donald Trump’s West Coast Golf Resort.
d) Look at the “Cliffs and Platforms” section to see more pictures of coastal features.
24. Under the “Climate Change” section look at the “Sea Level” section. How much does the sea level change during a Full Glacial Period? How much during an Interglacial Period?
25. Click on the very small button “learn more about the oxygen isotope record.” What do scientists use to calculate the ratio of oxygen isotopes?

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